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Aquaporins influence water flow in plants, yet little is known of their involvement in the water-driven process of seed germination. We therefore investigated their role in seeds in the laboratory and under field and global warming conditions. We mapped the expression of tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP) during dormancy cycling and during germination under normal and water stress conditions. We found that the two key tonoplast aquaporins, TIP3;1 and TIP3;2, which have previously been implicated in water or solute transport, respectively, act antagonistically to modulate the response to abscisic acid, with TIP3;1 being a positive and TIP3;2 a negative regulator. A third isoform, TIP4;1, which is normally expressed upon completion of germination, was found to play an earlier role during water stress. Seed TIP also contribute to the regulation of depth of primary dormancy and differences in the induction of secondary dormancy during dormancy cycling. Protein and gene expression during annual cycling under field conditions and a global warming scenario further illustrate this role. We propose that the different responses of the seed TIP contribute to mechanisms that influence dormancy status and the timing of germination under variable soil conditions.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Plant, cell & environment
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The state of failure to complete the process of GERMINATION of an intact viable seed, due to intrinsic physical, molecular, genetic, or physiological parameters under otherwise favourable prevailing conditions.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLING. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
One or more types of plant seed proteins providing the large amounts of AMINO ACIDS utilized in GERMINATION and SEEDLING growth. As seeds are the major food source from AGRICULTURAL CROPS, seed storage proteins are a major source of DIETARY PROTEINS.
A thioredoxin subtype that is ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. It reduces a variety of seed storage proteins and may play a role in the germination process of seeds.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
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