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Glucose Responsiveness of β-Cells Depends on Fatty Acids.

08:00 EDT 15th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Glucose Responsiveness of β-Cells Depends on Fatty Acids."

Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is the gold standard for β-cell function. Both experimental and clinical diabetology, i. e., preceding transplantation of isolated human islets, depend on functional testing. However, multiple factors influence GSIS rendering the comparison of different tests of glucose responsiveness difficult. This study examined the influence of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coupled fatty acids on GSIS. Isolated islet preparations of human donors and of 12-months old mice displayed impaired GSIS in the presence of 0.5% FFA-free BSA compared to 0.5% BSA (fraction V, not deprived from fatty acids). In aged INS-1E cells, i. e. at a high passage number, GSIS became highly sensitive to FFA-free BSA. Readdition of 30 µM palmitate or 30 µM oleate to FFA-free BSA did not rescue GSIS, while the addition of 100 µM palmitate and the raise of extracellular Cafrom 1.3 to 2.6 mM improved glucose responsiveness. A high concentration of palmitate (600 µM), which fully activates FFA1, largely restored insulin secretion. The FFA1-agonist TUG-469 also increased insulin secretion but to a lesser extent than palmitate. Glucose- and TUG-induced Caoscillations were impaired in glucose-unresponsive, i. e., aged INS-1E cells. These results suggest that fatty acid deprivation (FFA-free BSA) impairs GSIS mainly through an effect on Casensitivity.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
ISSN: 1439-3646
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.

Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.

A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.

FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.

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