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Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is the gold standard for β-cell function. Both experimental and clinical diabetology, i. e., preceding transplantation of isolated human islets, depend on functional testing. However, multiple factors influence GSIS rendering the comparison of different tests of glucose responsiveness difficult. This study examined the influence of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coupled fatty acids on GSIS. Isolated islet preparations of human donors and of 12-months old mice displayed impaired GSIS in the presence of 0.5% FFA-free BSA compared to 0.5% BSA (fraction V, not deprived from fatty acids). In aged INS-1E cells, i. e. at a high passage number, GSIS became highly sensitive to FFA-free BSA. Readdition of 30 µM palmitate or 30 µM oleate to FFA-free BSA did not rescue GSIS, while the addition of 100 µM palmitate and the raise of extracellular Cafrom 1.3 to 2.6 mM improved glucose responsiveness. A high concentration of palmitate (600 µM), which fully activates FFA1, largely restored insulin secretion. The FFA1-agonist TUG-469 also increased insulin secretion but to a lesser extent than palmitate. Glucose- and TUG-induced Caoscillations were impaired in glucose-unresponsive, i. e., aged INS-1E cells. These results suggest that fatty acid deprivation (FFA-free BSA) impairs GSIS mainly through an effect on Casensitivity.
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Fatty acids play a role in development and progression of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between tissue fatty acids (saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, the...
The prevalence of adult and childhood obesity are increasing. Most of the human newborn's body fat accumulates in the last half of intrauterine life. Fat in the fetus was thought to be mostly synthesi...
The health benefits of substituting dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for saturated fatty acids are well known. However, limited information exists on how the response to dietary intake of l...
Retinoic acid receptor responder 1 (RARRES1) is silenced in many cancers and is differentially expressed in metabolism associated diseases, such as hepatic steatosis, hyperinsulinemia and obesity. Her...
Using differentiated rat L6 cells, we studied the direct effect of 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) and 3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2) on the response to insulin in presence of fatty acids with a varying ...
To study the absolute concentrations and percent of fatty acids in 480 plasma samples from an age and sex stratified random sample of subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study in order to...
The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between the bile acids, fatty acids (fatty acids are part of the diet) and bacteria that are present in the intestines.
This study is to examine the change of fasting insulin, glucose, insulin sensitivity and related traits in response to the six month treatment of omega-3 fatty acids, including fish oil an...
Published studies on omega 3 fatty acids in the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have shown reductions in time to recurrence, a decrease in the positive and negative symptom...
Omega-3 fatty acids are provided through dietary intake of fish and seafood. Several dietary supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids are also commercially available. Some studies have d...
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
Endocrine disorders are grouped into two categories: hormone imbalance - when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect...