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With the implementation of highly effective direct acting antivirals (DAAs), global control or even elimination of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection might have come into reach. In fact, DAA therapy leads to complete virus elimination, defined as sustained viral response (SVR), in the vast majority of patients. Moreover, in patients without cirrhosis, the risk of developing HCC after DAA therapy is significantly reduced. For viremic patients who have already received DAA therapy, a distinction must be made between relapse and reinfection. The rate of new infections remains high and many infected individuals are undiagnosed. In order to come closer to the WHO goal of eliminating HCV worldwide by 2030, programs are needed to identify and treat all HCV-infected individuals. Strategies are missing in most countries to achieve this goal. Generic DAA therapies are available in some countries and appear to have similar cure rates compared to those obtained with the original drugs. The high variability of HCV, the numerous strategies of the virus to escape the immune response, and the lack of a suitable small animal model are key hurdles for vaccine development. Currently, the efficacy of two vaccine candidates is being investigated in clinical trials. The development of a protective vaccine is important, despite available therapy, to sustainably reduce the rate of new infections both in developing countries and in people with risk behavior.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of death worldwide due to infectious agents. The advent of direct-acting antivirals has dramatically improved the chance of HCV eli...
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INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
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