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With approximately 240 million chronically infected people, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in the world. Chronic HBV infection should be treated with antivirals, if either liver cirrhosis with detectable HBV DNA or relevant viral load (HBV DNA > 2000 IU/ml) and signs of liver damage (transaminase elevation, fibrosis, risk of liver cancer or similar) are present. The current standard therapy is a long-term treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues such as entecavir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir alafenamide, while in selected cases interferon treatment (for 48 weeks) may be useful. Entecavir and the new drug tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) are to be preferred over tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in patients with concomitant renal insufficiency or osteoporosis. Pregnant women with high viral load (> 200 000 IU/ml) should be treated with tenofovir in the third trimester to minimize the risk of neonatal transmission (in addition to immediate active-passive immunization). In conditions of immunosuppression (e. g. chemotherapy, rituximab, anti-TNF), even a "healed" HBV infection may reactivate in a life-threatening manner, requiring prophylactic antiviral therapy in addition to testing for HBV in high-risk situations. The current therapies primarily achieve virus suppression, but rarely the loss of HBs antigen, which is considered a functional cure. New strategies such as discontinuation of long-term antiviral therapy with provoked reactivation and also completely new drugs are currently in clinical trials. The most serious form of viral hepatitis is the co-/superinfection of HBV with the delta virus (HDV). Standard therapy for delta hepatitis is pegylated interferon-alfa, but the approval of new drugs such as the HBV entry inhibitor Myrcludex is expected in the near future.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
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INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A technique of brain electric stimulation therapy which uses constant, low current delivered via ELECTRODES placed on various locations on the scalp.
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