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Evolution of Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in Animals: A Beautiful Theory, Undermined by Facts and Bedeviled by Details.

08:00 EDT 1st April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Evolution of Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in Animals: A Beautiful Theory, Undermined by Facts and Bedeviled by Details."

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Genome biology and evolution
ISSN: 1759-6653
Pages: 1135

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.

The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.

Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.

The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects. The NOAEL will depend on how closely dosages are spaced (lowest-observed-adverse-effect level and no-observed-effect level) and the number of animals examined. The ultimate objective is usually to determine not the "safe" dosage in laboratory animals but the "safe" dosage for humans. Therefore, the extrapolation most often required of toxicologists is from high-dosage studies in laboratory animals to low doses in humans. (Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 4th ed)

A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.

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