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Name: Genome biology and evolution
Dosage compensation of the mammalian X chromosome (X) was proposed by Susumu Ohno as a mechanism wherein the inactivation of one X in females would lead to the doubling the expression of the other. Th...
Males and females of Artemia franciscana, a crustacean commonly used in the aquarium trade, are highly dimorphic. Sex is determined by a pair of ZW chromosomes, but the nature and extent of differenti...
Chromosome number is perhaps the most basic characteristic of a genome, yet generalizations that can explain the evolution of this trait across large clades have remained elusive. Using karyotype data...
In 2009, we described the first generation of the chromosome 18 gene dosage maps. This tool included the annotation of each gene as well as each phenotype associated region. The goal of these annotate...
Human ribosomal RNA genes encoding a pre-transcript of the three major ribosomal RNA (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA) are tandemly repeated in human genome. Their total copy number varies from 250 to 670 per...
Workplace wellness programs have become a $6 billion industry and are widely touted as a way to improve employee well-being, reduce health care costs by promoting prevention, and increase ...
The purpose of this study is to examine the histological skin changes induced by different peeling agents (Trichloroacetic 25% and 40% and phenol/croton oil) in subcutaneous undermined fac...
Research questions: What effect does provision of food vouchers have on uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision? What is the amount of food voucher that should be given? Hypothesi...
Our vision, that of the researchers at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, is that every person with a chromosome 18 abnormality will have an autonomous and healt...
The purpose of this study is to compare C&P examination reports performed using a Compensation and Pension Examination Program (CPEP) computerized, templated documentation tool to a custom...
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects. The NOAEL will depend on how closely dosages are spaced (lowest-observed-adverse-effect level and no-observed-effect level) and the number of animals examined. The ultimate objective is usually to determine not the "safe" dosage in laboratory animals but the "safe" dosage for humans. Therefore, the extrapolation most often required of toxicologists is from high-dosage studies in laboratory animals to low doses in humans. (Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 4th ed)
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...