Influence of Sex, Menstrual Cycle, and Menopause Status on the Exercise Pressor Reflex.

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Summary of "Influence of Sex, Menstrual Cycle, and Menopause Status on the Exercise Pressor Reflex."

In this review, we highlight the underlying mechanisms responsible for the sex differences in the exercise pressor reflex (EPR), and, importantly, the impact of sex hormones and menopausal status. The EPR is attenuated in premenopausal women compared with age-matched men. Specifically, activation of the metaboreflex (a component of the EPR) results in attenuated increases in blood pressure and sympathetic vasomotor outflow compared with age-matched men. In addition, premenopausal women exhibit less transduction of sympathetic outflow to the peripheral vasculature than men. In stark contrast, postmenopausal women exhibit an augmented EPR arising from exaggerated metaboreflex-induced autonomic and cardiovascular reflexes. We propose that metaboreflex-induced autonomic and cardiovascular changes associated with menopause majorly contribute to the elevated blood pressure response during dynamic exercise in postmenopausal women. In addition, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which sex hormones in premenopausal women may impact the EPR as well as metaboreflex.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Medicine and science in sports and exercise
ISSN: 1530-0315
Pages: 874-881


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

The transitional period before and after MENOPAUSE. Perimenopausal symptoms are associated with irregular MENSTRUAL CYCLE and widely fluctuated hormone levels. They may appear 6 years before menopause and subside 2 to 5 years after menopause.

The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.

The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.

The premature cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) when the last menstrual period occurs in a woman under the age of 40. It is due to the depletion of OVARIAN FOLLICLES. Premature MENOPAUSE can be caused by diseases; OVARIECTOMY; RADIATION; chemicals; and chromosomal abnormalities.

Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.

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