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A continuous transformation from a closed vesicle to an open vesicle requires that the area of open hole enlarge from zero. Since the shape equation and boundary conditions of lipid open vesicles with free edges have been obtained, we want know whether this process can be achieved with valid parameters. By studying the boundary conditions in the axisymmetric case, the analytic expression of the boundary edges is obtained generally. It reveals that the radius and line tension of boundary edges are confined strongly by bending moduli. In some cases, there is the minimal nonzero boundary radius and the line tension needs to surmount the maxim following the increase of boundary radius. Without the spontaneous curvature, the line tension will trend to infinite when the boundary radius shrinks to zero. The continuous opening up process requires that the spontaneous curvature is nonzero and the ratio between the bending moduli of Gauss curvature and mean curvature satisfies $k\leq-4$, which is smaller than the value $k\simeq-1$ from experiments and simulations. This result indicates that the opening up process is discontinuous.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal
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Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
Vesicles secreted from MULTIVESICULAR BODIES into the extracellular environment when the multivesicular bodies fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Multivesicular bodies are formed from ENDOSOMES when they accumulate vesicles (sometimes referred to as "intraluminal vesicles") from inward budding of the endosome membrane.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.