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This paper investigates the characterisation of alumina-doped titania nanoparticles, milled under high-shear over time, in the presence of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) dispersant. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that prolonged milling times led to the formation of 10 nm particle fines which were electrostatically attracted to larger particles, where no change in the crystal structure was observed. Primary particle sizes measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and TEM were in agreement and showed no change in primary particle size (∼250 nm) with respect to milling time, however, there was a clear reduction in the magnitude of the slow mode decay associated to aggregates. The TiO was found to have an isoelectric point (iep) in the range of pH 3-4.5, where an increase in milling time led to a lower pH, indicative of an increase in SHMP coverage, which was further supported by an intensification in phosphorus content measured by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Phosphorus content and zeta potential analysis before and after centrifugal washing showed that SHMP was partially removed or hydrolysed for the longer milled pigment samples, whereas no change was observed for shorter milled samples. Relaxation NMR was also performed, where enhanced relaxation rates at longer milling times were associated partially to increases in surface area and exposure of Al sites, as well as physicochemical changes to SHMP density and structure. It is thought that extended milling times may lead to hydrolysis or other structural changes of the dispersant from the high energy milling conditions, allowing easier removal after washing for longer milled pigments.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of colloid and interface science
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Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A layer of protein coating adsorbed by NANOPARTICLES upon entry into PLASMA or other protein-containing biological fluids, which affects how nanoparticles are internalized by cells and cleared from the body.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
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