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This work aims to assess, individually and in mixtures, possible phytotoxic effects of three pharmaceuticals (paracetamol, ibuprofen and amoxicillin) on germination and early growth of Lactuca sativa seeds. Pharmaceuticals are an important group of emerging contaminants, whose presence has been described in several environmental compartments, including soils. However, knowledge on their possible impact in terrestrial organisms is still sparse and even more when mixtures are considered. Germination tests are important to evaluate the quality of soil and the toxic effects that contaminants can pose to plants. The acute effects of individual pharmaceuticals as well as binary and ternary mixtures were assessed using different endpoints, namely: percentage of seed germination, root elongation, shoot and leaf length, after an exposure time of five days. Overall, in the exposure of L. sativa seeds to individual pharmaceuticals there are indications of acute toxicity in the early plant growth. However, this inhibitory effect tends to be cancelled in the acute exposure to mixtures. This study shows the importance of evaluating the toxicity of mixtures of pharmaceuticals, since they might have distinct toxic effects when compared to the single compounds, and also because, probably, it is the closest scenario to the reality that can be found in the environment.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically present as mixtures in the environment, but a quantitative understanding of mixture toxicity and interactions of REEs is still lacking. Here, we examined the t...
The worldwide rice production has been dwindling due to biotic and abiotic causes. Chitosan is a proven biofunctional material that induces many biological responses in plants. However, the growth and...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and zinc oxide nanoparticles are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment. However, little information is available about their toxicity interaction in food crops. In ...
In recent years, laboratory soil toxicity testing has advanced with the introduction of ecologically relevant boreal forest soil invertebrate and plant species, as well as increased adoption of avoida...
This study evaluated the use of phenamacril and ipconazole, alone and in mixtures, for the control of rice bakanae disease caused by Fusarium fujikuroi. Mixtures were studied with the goal of reducing...
To evaluate effectiveness of a prefixed 50% N2O- 50%O2 mixture in legal abortion under paracervical block.
Nalbuphine has been used as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in intrathecal,epidural, caudal anesthesia and peripheral nerve blocks showing an increase in the efficacy and the duration of postop...
Fetal growth abnormalities, such as macrosomia and intrauterine growth retardation, are an important cause for increased perinatal mortality in the United States. Toward this end, accurat...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of treating with acute tonsillitis using Reyanning mixture alone/in combination with antibiotics, and its function of reduc...
The aim of this study is to measure the effect of a prebiotic (high dose/low dose) mixture at different doses within a wheat-based instant cereal, on fractional iron absorption (FIA), gut ...
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLING. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivatives, CARBENOXOLONE for example. Licorice toxicity is manifested as hypokalemia, low blood potassium. Licorice is used as flavoring and aromatic in pharmaceuticals and as candy.
An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
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