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Passive sampling techniques have been considered robust tools for monitoring freely dissolved concentrations of contaminants in aquatic systems. However, few passive samplers are currently available for the simultaneous sampling of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals. In this study, we developed a novel passive sampler (a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbent-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (HECAM)) for estimating the time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic contaminants in water. In our laboratorial controlled dynamic experiments, the accumulation results of thirty-seven target chemicals (including organophosphorus flame retardants, phenols, estrogens, organophosphorus pesticides, and triazine herbicides) with a wide polarity range (1.44 < log K < 9.49) in the HECAM followed first-order kinetics well, and the passive sampling parameters were estimated successfully. The estimated sampling rates for the target chemicals in the HECAM ranged from 0.14 to 6.90 L d in the laboratory experiment, and the log K (equilibrium partition coefficient between the sampler and water) values ranged from 2.75 to 6.00. The HECAM exhibited high sampling rate for moderately hydrophilic and moderately hydrophobic chemicals. The field validation study in an urban river resulted in the detection of four target chemicals (tris(chloroisopropyl)phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate, prometryn, and 4-tert-octylphenol) by the HECAM at estimated TWA concentrations of 10.9-179.5 ng L, which were in agreement with the measured levels found in traditional grab samples by solid-phase extraction. In summary, both the laboratory tests and field deployment showed practicable results for the HECAM passive sampling, which suggests that it is an efficient approach for simultaneous monitoring of hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic contaminants in water.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety
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The passive movement of molecules exceeding the rate expected by simple diffusion. No energy is expended in the process. It is achieved by the introduction of passively diffusing molecules to an enviroment or path that is more favorable to the movement of those molecules. Examples of facilitated diffusion are passive transport of hydrophilic substances across a lipid membrane through hydrophilic pores that traverse the membrane, and the sliding of a DNA BINDING PROTEIN along a strand of DNA.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.
A sampling methodology using small sample sizes when conducting surveys in small geographical or population-based areas or lots.
Sampling of blood levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by withdrawal of blood from the inferior petrosal sinus. The inferior petrosal sinus arises from the cavernous sinus and runs to the internal jugular vein. Sampling of blood at this level is a valuable tool in the differential diagnosis of Cushing disease, Cushing syndrome, and other adrenocortical diseases.
Collaborations in biotechnology
Commercial and academic collaborations are used throughout the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector to enhance research and product development. Collaborations can take the form of research and evaluation agreements, licensing, partnerships etc. ...