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Most objective drowsiness measures have limited ability to provide continuous, accurate assessment of drowsiness state in operational settings. Spontaneous eye blink parameters are ideal for drowsiness assessment as they are objective, non-invasive, and can be recorded continuously during regular activities. Studies that have assessed the spontaneous eye blink as a drowsiness measure are diverse, varying greatly in respect to study design, eye blink acquisition technology and eye blink parameters assessed. The purpose of this narrative review is to collate these studies to determine 1) which eye blink parameters provide the best state drowsiness measures; 2) how well eye blink parameters relate to and predict conventional drowsiness measures and 3) whether eye blink parameters can identify drowsiness impairment in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) - a highly prevalent disorder associated with excessive sleepiness and increased accident risk. In summary, almost all eye blink parameters varied consistently with drowsiness state, with blink duration and percentage of eye closure the most robust. All eye blink parameters were associated with and predicted conventional drowsiness measures, with generally fair to good accuracy. Eye blink parameters also showed utility for identifying OSA patients and treatment response, suggesting these parameters may identify drowsiness impairment in this group.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Sleep medicine reviews
To analyze the spontaneous eyelid blink and sphincter closure activity of the orbicularis oculi by measuring the horizontal eyelid movement.
Spontaneous blinking is one of the most frequent human behaviours. While attentionally guided blinking may benefit human survival, the function of spontaneous frequent blinking in cognitive processes ...
To evaluate spontaneous eye blink patterns and their correlations with clinical tests in dry eye disease (DED).
Spontaneous blinking is a non-invasive indicator known to reflect dopaminergic influence over frontal cortex and attention allocation in perceptual tasks. 38 participants watched eighteen short film c...
Retinal input is frequently lost because of eye blinks, yet humans rarely notice these gaps in visual input. Although previous studies focused on the perceptual and neural correlates of diminished awa...
The investigators will test whether narrative life review and web-based social networking for middle aged adults with advanced cancer will improve: 1. existential well being (and reduce...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Blink Tears and Systane used concomitantly with topical cyclosporine for the treatment of dry eye.
This study compares Narrative Exposure Therapy with a Waiting list control group, both consists of traumatized patients with diagnosed Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The main aim is to inv...
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of BLINK™ tears compared with NO topical artificial tear use in improving subject's visual performance and reduce ocular symptoms of discomfort in sub...
The study aims to evaluate the association between spontaneous pneumothorax onset and weather parameters.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.
The Commission was created by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 under Title XVIII. It is specifically charged to review the effect of Medicare+Choice under Medicare Part C and to review payment policies under Parts A and B. It is also generally charged to evaluate the effect of prospective payment policies and their impact on health care delivery in the US. The former Prospective Payment Assessment Commission (ProPAC) and the Physician Payment Review Commission (PPRC) were merged to form MEDPAC.
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)
Mergers & Acquisitions
Commercial and market reports on mergers and acquisitions in the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical device and life-science industries. Mergers and acquisitions (abbreviated M&A;) is an aspect of corporate strategy, corporate finance and manageme...
Sleep disorders disrupt sleep during the night, or cause sleepiness during the day, caused by physiological or psychological factors. The common ones include snoring and sleep apnea, insomnia, parasomnias, sleep paralysis, restless legs syndrome, circa...