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Currently, more and more concerns are related to oxidative stress appearing in cells as a result of xenobiotics action. It has been found that selected brominated flame retardants (BFRs) can cause reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction at environmental concentrations. Excessive ROS induction can contribute to the redox imbalance in the cell. Therefore, the aim of our work was to evaluate the effect of selected BFRs on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in human erythrocytes. Erythrocytes were incubated with tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol S (TBBPS), 2,4-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) and pentabromophenol (PBP) in the concentration ranging from 1 to 100 μg/ml. This study has shown that the BFRs studied disturbed redox balance in human erythrocytes. TBBPA caused more significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities than other compounds examined. Among bromophenols studied, 2,4-DBP most strongly affected antioxidant system, which indicated that the number of bromine atoms in the molecule did not significantly affect the pro-oxidative properties of the BFRs examined.
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A single SELENOCYSTEINE containing protein that binds reduced GLUTATHIONE and can act as an antioxidant.
One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of glutathione from gamma-glutamylcysteine and glycine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 184.108.40.206.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 18.104.22.168.
Nucleotide sequences that are found in the PROMOTER REGIONS of the genes of stress-responsive and cytoprotective proteins, such as those encoding antioxidant and PHASE II DETOXIFICATION enzymes. NF-E2-RELATED FACTOR 2 containing transcription factors bind to these elements during induction of these genes.
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