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The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of lead (Pb) were examined in the red algae, Porphyra yezoensis. The algae was exposed to three different Pb treatments (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg L) for up to 144 h. In the control groups, about 45% of Pb was localized in the cell wall, and 27.5% in the organelle and soluble fractions respectively. The dominant chemical forms of Pb was extracted by 80% ethanol (52.9%), while the form extracted by NaCl (1 M) was lowest. In the treatment groups, the cell wall and the organelle fraction were the main subcellular fractions for the 0.10 mg L and 1.0 mg L groups; while for the 0.01 mg L groups, Pb was approximately distributed in the cell wall, organelle and the soluble fractions. The dominant ethanol extractable form of Pb in the control and 0.01 mg L groups were replaced by less active 2% acetic acid (HAc) extractable form in the 0.1 and 1.0 mg L groups. Different from other terrestrial plants, the proportion of 1 M NaCl extractable form of the pectates and protein integrated Pb in P. yezoensis was lowest for both control and treatment groups. The strategy with deposition Pb in the cell wall and formation the precipitation of less active HAc extractable form maybe one of the mechanisms for accumulation, transportation and detoxification of Pb in P. yezoensis.
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A genus of RED ALGAE in the family Bangiaceae. It is the most widely consumed SEAWEED in the world and especially in Asia.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Algae of the division Rhodophyta, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Red algae are thought to be closely related to the prokaryotic CYANOBACTERIA.
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Lessoniaceae, and one of the major forms of KELP. The species Macrocystis pyrifera, also known as giant kelp, is the largest of the marine algae.
The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.