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Lab-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs), with aerated activated sludge and internal microfiltration module, were used for the treatment of municipal wastewater containing high, yet environmentally relevant, concentrations of benzothiazole (BT) and benzotriazole (BTA). These high production volume compounds are commonly used in the industry and households, and therefore occur ubiquitously in municipal wastewater and the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to assess the removal of BT and BTA from synthetic municipal wastewater in MBRs and to estimate the contribution of elimination processes and to identify potential biotransformation products. The overall removal of BT and BTA was high, and after the adaptation period, it reached 99.8% and 97.2%, respectively, but recurring periods of unstable BTA removal occurred. The removal due to biotransformation was 88% for BT and 84% for BTA and the disposal with waste sludge accounted for only <1% of the removed load. The remaining fraction of the removed load of BT and BTA was attributed to be retained by phenomena associated with membrane fouling. The adaptation process was reflected in multifold increase in biodegradation kinetic coefficient (k) for BT (reported for the first time) and BTA. Biodegradation was attributed to catabolic mechanism rather than to cometabolism. Hydroxylation was observed to be the main transformation reaction for BT, whereas for BTA hydroxylation, methylation and cleavage of benzene ring were noted. This study has shown the feasibility of treating municipal wastewater with high concentrations of BT and BTA in MBRs and identified potential challenges for the removal of BTA.
This article was published in the following journal.
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Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.
A member of the vesicle associated membrane protein family. It has a broad tissue distribution and is involved in MEMBRANE FUSION events of the endocytic pathways.
The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.
A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.