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The use of microinjection of newly fertilized zebrafish eggs as an appropriate tool for qualifying the biodetoxification properties of toxin-degrading microbes was investigated. Ochratoxin A (OTA), bacterial degradation products of OTA and bacterial metabolites of the Cupriavidus basilensis ŐR16 strain were microinjected. Results showed that variations in the injected droplet size, and thus treatment concentrations, stayed within ±20%, moreover embryo mortality did not exceed 10% in controls, that is in accordance with the recommendations of the OECD 236 guideline. The highest lethality was caused by OTA with a significantly higher toxicity than that of bacterial metabolites or OTA degradation products. However, toxicity of the latter two did not differ statistically from each other showing that the observed mortality was due to the intrinsic toxicity of bacterial metabolites (and not OTA degradation products), thus, the strain effectively degrades OTA to nontoxic products. Sublethal symptoms also confirmed this finding.
confirmed that microinjection of zebrafish embryos could be a reliable tool for testing the toxin-degrading properties of microbes. The method also allows comparisons among microbial strains able to degrade the same toxin, helping the selection of effective and environmentally safe microbial strains for the biodetoxification of mycotoxins in large scale.
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Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Toxicoses caused by toxic substances secreted by the salivary glands of ticks; include tick paralysis (neurotropic toxin), sweating sickness (dermotropic toxin), and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus toxicosis (leukotropic toxin).
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