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In this study, the potential of vascularized tissue-engineered bone constructed by a double cell-sheet (DCS) complex and polylysine (PLL)-modified coralline hydroxyapatite (CHA) to repair large radius bone defects was investigated in rabbits. Firstly, the DCS complex was obtained after rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) culture was induced. Secondly, PLL-CHA composite scaffolds with different concentrations of PLL were prepared by the soaking and vacuum freeze-drying methods, and then the scaffolds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, compression performance testing and cytocompatibility evaluation. Thirdly, DCS-PLL-CHA vascularized tissue-engineered bone was constructed in vitro and transplanted into a large radius bone defect model in rabbits. Finally, the potential of the DCS-PLL-CHA vascularized tissue-engineered bone to repair the large bone defect was evaluated through general observations, laser speckle imaging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histological staining, radiography observations and RT-PCR. The in vitro experimental results showed that the DCS complex provided a very large cell reserve, which carried a large number of osteoblasts and vascular endothelial cells that were induced in vitro. When the DCS complex was combined with the PLL-CHA scaffold in vitro, the effects of PLL on cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation led to a situation similar to the chemotaxis of the body, making the combined complex more conducive to graft cellularization than the DCS complex alone. The in vivo experiments showed blood supply on the surface of the callus in each group, and the amount of blood perfusion on the surface of the defect area was almost equal among the groups. At 12 weeks, the surface of the DCS-PLL-CHA group was completely wrapped by bone tissue and osteoids, the cortical bone image was basically continuous, and the medullary cavity was mainly perforated. A large amount of well-arranged lamellar bone was formed, a small amount of undegraded CHA exhibited a linear pattern, and a large amount of bone filling could be seen in the pores. At 12 weeks, the expression levels of BGLAP, SPP1 and VEGF were similar in each group, but PECAM1 expression was higher in the DCS-PLL-CHA group than in the autogenous bone group and CHA group. The results showed that PLL could effectively promote the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of ADSCs and that DCS-PLL-CHA vascularized tissue-engineered bone has potential for bone regeneration and bone reconstruction and can be used to repair large bone defects. Statement of Significance 1. PLL-CHA composite scaffolds with different concentrations of PLL were prepared by the soaking and vacuum freeze-drying methods. 2. The vascularized tissue-engineered bone was constructed by the double cell sheet (DCS) complex combined with PLL-CHA scaffolds. 3. The DCS-PLL-CHA vascularized tissue-engineered bone has potential for bone regeneration and bone reconstruction and can be used to repair large bone defects.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta biomaterialia
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