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In mammalian cells, nearly one-third of proteins are inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they undergo oxidative folding and chaperoning assisted by approximately 20 members of the protein disulfide isomerase family (PDIs). PDIs consist of multiple thioredoxin-like domains and recognize a wide variety of proteins via highly conserved interdomain flexibility. Although PDIs have been studied intensely for almost 50 years, exactly how they maintain protein homeostasis in the ER remains unknown, and is important not only for fundamental biological understanding but also for protein misfolding- and aggregation-related pathophysiology. Herein, we review recent advances in structural biology and biophysical approaches that explore the underlying mechanism by which PDIs fulfil their distinct functions to promote productive protein folding and scavenge misfolded proteins in the ER, the primary factory for efficient production of the secretome.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3), an endoplasmic reticulum protein, is expressed in bladder of BC patients. However, its role in BC has been elusive till now.
Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an oxidoreductase consisting of four domains arranged in the order of a-b-b'-a' with an x-linker between the b' and a' domains. PDI binds to the αIIbβ3 integrin ...
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Sulfur-sulfur bond isomerases that catalyze the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. Specific protein disulfide-isomerase isoenzymes also occur as subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a protein-disulfide in the presence of glutathione, forming a protein-dithiol. Insulin is one of its substrates. EC 220.127.116.11.
Neuronal growth factor and lymphokine product of lectin-stimulated T-cells which induces immunoglobulin secretion. Its amino acid sequence is partially homologous to the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120, which may explain, in part, the pathogenesis of AIDS DEMENTIA COMPLEX. Closely related to PHOSPHOHEXOSE ISOMERASE; AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR and maturation factor.
Amino acid sequence in which two disulfide bonds (DISULFIDES) and their connecting backbone form a ring that is penetrated by a third disulfide bond. Members include CYCLOTIDES and agouti-related protein.
A structurally-related family of small proteins that form a stable tertiary fold pattern which is supported by a series of disulfide bonds. The arrangement of disulfide bonds between the CYSTEINE moieties results in a knotted structure which is unique to this family of proteins.
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