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In most mature neurons, low levels of intracellular Cl concentrations ([Cl]) are maintained by channels and transporters, particularly the K-Cl cotransporter 2 (KCC2), which is the only Cl extruder in most neurons. Recent studies have implicated KCC2 expression in the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal disorders, such as spasticity, epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Alterations in KCC2 expression have been associated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB). The present review summarizes recent progress regarding the roles of Cl regulators in immature and mature neurons. Moreover, we focus on the role of KCC2 regulation via the BDNF-TrkB pathway in spinal cord injury and rehabilitation, as prior studies have shown that the BDNF-TrkB pathway can affect both the pathological development and functional amelioration of spinal cord injuries. Evidence suggests that rehabilitation using active exercise and mechanical stimulation can attenuate spasticity and neuropathic pain in animal models, likely due to the upregulation of KCC2 expression via the BDNF-TrkB pathway. Moreover, research suggests that such rehabilitation efforts may recover KCC2 expression without the use of exogenous BDNF.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neurochemistry international
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A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.
The diagnosis and treatment of human responses of individuals and groups to actual or potential health problems with the characteristics of altered functional ability and altered life-style. (American Nurses Association & Association of Rehabilitation Nurses. Standards of Rehabilitation Nursing Practice, 1986, p.2)
Studies and research concerning the psychological, educational, social, vocational, industrial, and economic aspects of REHABILITATION.
A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.
An LDL-receptor related protein that combines with cell surface FRIZZLED RECEPTORS to form WNT PROTEIN-binding receptors. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in regulation of vascular cell proliferation.
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An anesthesiologist (US English) or anaesthetist (British English) is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine. Anesthesiologists are physicians who provide medical care to patients in a wide variety of (usually acute) situations. ...