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The maturational schedule of typical brain development is tightly constrained; deviations from it are associated with cognitive atypicalities, and are potentially predictive of developmental disorders. Previously, we have shown that the white/gray contrast at the inner border of the cortex is a good predictor of chronological age, and is sensitive to aspects of brain development that reflect cognitive performance. Here we extend that work to include the white/gray contrast at the border of subcortical structures. We show that cortical and subcortical contrast together yield better age-predictions than any non-kernel-based method based on a single image-type, and that the residuals of the improved predictions provide new insight into unevenness in cognitive performance. We demonstrate the improvement in age predictions in two large datasets: the NIH Pediatric Data, with 831 scans of typically developing individuals between 4 and 22 years of age; and the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics data, with 909 scans of individuals in a similar age-range. Assessment of the relation of the residuals of these age predictions to verbal and performance IQ revealed correlations in opposing directions, and a principal component analysis of the residuals of the model that best fit the contrast data produced components related to either performance IQ or verbal IQ. Performance IQ was associated with the first principle component, reflecting increased cortical contrast, broadly, with almost no subcortical presence; verbal IQ was associated with the second principle component, reflecting reduced contrast in the basal ganglia and increased contrast in the bilateral arcuate fasciculi.
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Schizophrenia is associated with widespread cortical and subcortical abnormalities. Studies examining cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have historically focused on cortical deficits; however, many ...
Altered cortical brain morphology is observed in psychotic disorders. Despite the importance of lipid homeostasis for healthy brain functioning, knowledge about its role in cortical alterations in psy...
The human brain undergoes dramatic structural changes during childhood that co-occur with behavioral development. These age-related changes are documented for the brain's gray matter and white matter....
Obesity is associated with reduced cortical thickness and brain volume, which may be related to poor nutrition. Given that brain atrophy in anorexia nervosa recovers with nutritional improvements and ...
Alterations in cognitive performance have been noted in nondemented subjects with elevated accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) fibrils. However, it is not yet understood whether brain function is already...
The purpose of this study is to characterize and compare irregularities in dopaminergic function in fronto-subcortical circuits, between Parkinson's Disease patients (ON and OFF medication...
Post stroke aphasia (PSA) is one of the most frequently happened deficency of stoke, affecting speaking,comprehension, writing and reading of language. Generally, PSA is commonly seen in c...
The main objective of this experiment is to evaluate the alterations in brain cortical activity induced by micro- and hypergravity conditions. A secondary objective is to correlate change...
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with decreased risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. CRF is linked with more conserved gray and white matter (WM) volume, imp...
A Monocenter, Cross-sectional Study to Compare Different Type of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers (Beta Amyloid, Total Tau Protein and Tau-phosphorylated Protein).
In multiple sclerosis (MS) sub cortical cognitive impairments are frequently reported. Nevertheless, cortical cognitive troubles, with hippocampic memory troubles have been described. Besi...
Striped gray and white matter consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the thalamus in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The white matter is the internal capsule.
Loss of higher cortical functions with retained awareness due to multiple cortical or subcortical CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Memory, judgment, attention span, and impulse control are often impaired, and may be accompanied by PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY; HEMIPARESIS; reflex abnormalities, and other signs of localized neurologic dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1060)
Gray matter structures of the telencephalon and limbic system in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM. Many authorities consider the septal region to be made up of the septal area and the septal nuclei, but excluding the septum pellucidum. (Anthoney, Neuroanatomy and the Neurologic Exam, 1994, pp485-489; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (November 18, 1998)).
Cortical malformations secondary to abnormal cortical maturation after CELL MIGRATION in NEUROGENESIS. This group includes injury to the cortex during later stages of cortical development such as POLYMICROGYRIA and focal cortical dysplasias.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...