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Noradrenaline (NA) modulates the spinal motor networks for locomotion and facilitates neuroplasticity, possibly assisting neuronal network activation and neuroplasticity in the recovery phase of spinal cord injuries. However, neither the effects nor the mechanisms of NA on synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in spinal ventral horn (VH) neurons are well characterized, especially in rats aged 7 postnatal days or older. To gain insight into NA regulation of VH neuronal activity, we used a whole-cell patch-clamp approach in late neonatal rats (postnatal day 7-15). In voltage-clamp recordings at -70 mV, NA increased the frequency and amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents via the activation of somatic α- and β-adrenoceptors of presynaptic neurons. Moreover, NA induced an inward current through the activation of postsynapticα- and β-adrenoceptors. At a holding potential of 0 mV, NA also increased frequency and amplitude of both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents via the activation of somatic adrenoceptors in presynaptic neurons. In current-clamp recordings, NA depolarized resting membrane potentials and increased the firing frequency of action potentials in VH neurons, indicating that it enhances the excitability of these neurons. Our findings provide new insights that establish NA-based pharmacological therapy as an effective method to activate neuronal networks of the spinal VH in the recovery phase of spinal cord injuries.
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It is well known that the extracellular concentration of calcium affects neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Less is known about the physiological concentration of extracellular calcium i...
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The M-channels (i.e., voltage-gated potassium channels formed by KCNQ2, KCNQ3 and KCNQ 5) has emerged as a promising target for treating bipolar disorder. M- Kv7 channel activators have shown to decre...
Long-term synaptic modification is not the exclusive mode of memory storage, and persistent regulation of voltage-gated ion channels also participates in memory formation. Intrinsic plasticity is expr...
Brain functions are extremely sensitive to pH changes because of the pH-dependence of proteins involved in neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Here, we show that the Na+/H+ exchanger Nhe1...
An important mechanism responsible for clinical recovery after neurological damage of different types is synaptic plasticity. Nervous tissue can enhance or de-energize inter-neuronal trans...
This study addresses the changes in the axonal excitability parameters. It will compare these changes in patients with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with HCN1 channel mutation a...
12 normal healthy controls will be treated with 50 mg sertraline once daily for three weeks. Early amplitudes of visually evoked potentials will be examined at day 0, 10 and 21 and statist...
This study aims to measure synaptic density in the brains (including in ventral striatum [VS] and medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC]) of abstinent subjects with Cocaine Use Disorder (CUD) or ...
Investigating modulation of motor cortex excitability by transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Cytoskeleton specialization at the cytoplasmic side of postsynaptic membrane in SYNAPSES. It is involved in neuronal signaling and NEURONAL PLASTICITY and comprised of GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS; scaffolding molecules (e.g., PSD95, PSD93), and other proteins (e.g., CaCMKII).
A neuronal protein consisting of three PDZ DOMAINS, an SH3 DOMAIN, and a C-terminal guanylate kinase-like region (see MAGUK PROTEINS). It localizes to the POST-SYNAPTIC DENSITY and associates with the cytoplasmic tail of NMDA RECEPTORS and SHAKER POTASSIUM CHANNELS, playing a critical role in NMDA receptor-mediated SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.
Spinal Cord Disorders
The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of the back which carry signals back and forth between the body and brain. It is protected by vertebrae, which are the bone disks that make up the spine. An accident that damages the verte...