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Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) exerts protective effects against ischemic cerebral injury. In the present study, an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia (oxygen and glucose deprivation, OGD) was established to investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of IPC. We found that conditioned medium (C.M.) from astrocytes rather than neurons nor microglia cell line BV2 exerted neuroprotection. Moreover, exosomes derived from OGD preconditioned astrocytes can be taken up by neurons and attenuated OGD-induced neuron death and apoptosis. High-throughput microRNA (miRNA) sequencing revealed that miR-92b-3p levels in exosomes released from preconditioned astrocytes were increased. Overexpression of miR-92b-3p in neurons with miR-92b-3p mimic achieved the same protective effects as C.M. from astrocytes. Thus, we propose that the mechanism of IPC may associate with astrocytes, and that exosome-mediated miR-92b-3p shuttle from preconditioned astrocytes to neurons participate in these process.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain research
Experimental focal cortical ischemic lesions consist of an ischemic core and a potentially salvageable peri-ischemic region, the ischemic penumbra. The activity of neurons and astrocytes is assumed to...
Both excitotoxicity and neurotrophin deficiency may contribute to the etiology of depression and neurodegeneration. Astrocytes not only regulate glutamate metabolism and clearance, they also produce n...
Glutamate excitotoxicity is responsible for neuronal death in acute neurological disorders, including stroke, trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocytes are the main cells for the removal of gl...
Astrocyte-neuron interactions protect neurons from iron-mediated toxicity. As dopamine can be metabolized to reactive quinones, dopaminergic neurons are susceptible to oxidative damage and ferroptosis...
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a heterogeneous midbrain structure, containing neurons and astrocytes, that coordinates behaviors by integrating activity from numerous afferents. Within neuron-ast...
Administration of cell-free exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) can be sufficient to exert therapeutic effects of intact MSCs after brain injury. In this study we aim to ass...
This research will be the first study for exosome purified from blood in gallbladder carcinoma patients. Proteomics studies will be done in both tumor tissue and the circulating exosome fr...
In this proof-of-concept study, forearm vulnerability to ischemic exercise is studied in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus with and without prior ischemic preconditioning (short perio...
This is a study of transplantation of Astrocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells, in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). There will be no change in the routine ALS ...
Ischemia and reperfusion injury is unavoidable during a liver transplantation. Remote ischemic preconditioning, a safe and feasible method, has previously been shown to reduce ischemia and...
The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.
A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that has been described in NEURONS and ASTROCYTES.
Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals, and some viruses. Key findings: miRNA is involved in the normal functioning of eukaryotic cells, so has dysregulation...