Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
It has been generally accepted that inflammatory responses induced by status epilepticus (SE) in the brain are associated with microglial activation. One important regulator of microglial activation is high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein. HMGB1 exerts its influence on microglia via various pathways including Toll-like receptor (TLR) subtypes 2 and 4. To explore the HMGB1 role in the SE-induced microglial activation and the involvement of TLRs we conducted in vivo and ex vivo experiments using the HMGB1 antagonist BoxA. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, brain water content, hippocampal neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis were measured 24 hours after the pilocarpine induction of status epilepticus (SE) in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with BoxA. In ex vivo experiments, post-SE microglia cells were isolated from the hippocampal CA1 area and subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation followed by inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and IL-6 by qPCR and HMGB1, TLR2, TLR3 by Western blotting. A significant down-regulation of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α but not HMGB1 was found in BoxA-treated compared to untreated animals. These changes were associated with decreased BBB permeability, reduced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis and reduction in hippocampal microglial activation. We conclude that BoxA-induced suppression of HMGB1-mediated neuroinflammatory responses is associated with TLR-2 and 4 down-regulation and should be explored as a potential therapeutic target.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain research
High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is known to have proinflammatory properties; however, the mechanisms by which HMGB1 influences immune responses during atherosclerosis (AS) development are no...
Acute cholecystitis is defined as gallbladder inflammation caused by obstruction of the cystic duct. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), has been found to hold critical r...
High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a sterile inflammatory molecule and damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) released from various cells during stress has been implicated in inflammation....
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting more than 2.5 million people worldwide. However, the exact etiology of MS remains...
Interactions among cytokines have important roles in the inflammatory processes underlying Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Resistin and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) are involved in many inflammat...
It is reported that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a non-histone nuclear protein, can serve as an alarmin with damage associated molecular patterns to activate immune responses in the ...
Is HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1) elevated in sepsis patients for weeks after recovery from severe sepsis/septic shock, similar to what has been observed in mice? Do patients recovering...
This study aim to observe and compare the change of alarmins such as high mobility group nucleosome-binding protein-1 (HMGN1), high mobility group proteins b1 (HMGb1), Interleukin (IL)-33 ...
This study evaluated the association between HMGB1 and diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients. HMGB1 level were tested in all patients, and diastolic function determined by echocar...
To investigate if the inflammatory protein, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), along with other inflammatory mediators, is elevated in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease (CHD...
A family of HIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEINS that bind to NUCLEOSOMES.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.