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The interactions between parasitic helminths and gut microbiota are considered to be an important, although as yet incompletely understood, factor in the regulation of immunity, inflammation and a range of diseases. Infection with intestinal helminths is ubiquitous in grazing horses, with cyathostomins (about 50 species of which are recorded) predominating. Consequences of infection include both chronic effects, and an acute inflammatory syndrome, acute larval cyathostominosis (ALC), which sometimes follows removal of adult helminths by administration of anthelmintic drugs. The presence of cyathostomins as a resident helminth population of the equine gut (the "helminthome") provides an opportunity to investigate the effect helminth infection, and its perturbation, has on both the immune system and bacterial microbiome of the gut, as well as to determine the specific mechanisms of pathophysiology involved in equine ALC. We studied changes in the faecal microbiota of two groups of horses following treatment with anthelmintics (fenbendazole or moxidectin). We found decreases in both alpha diversity and beta diversity of the faecal microbiota at Day 7 post-treatment, which were reversed by Day 14. These changes were accompanied by increases in inflammatory biomarkers. The general pattern of faecal microbiota detected was similar to that seen in the relatively few equine gut microbiome studies reported to date. We conclude that interplay between resident cyathostomin populations and the bacterial microbiota of the equine large intestine is important in maintaining homeostasis and that disturbance of this ecology can lead to gut dysbiosis and play a role in the aetiology of inflammatory conditions in the horse, including acute larval cyathostominosis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal for parasitology
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A species of Faecalbacterium, previously classified in the FUSOBACTERIUM genus, that is a major constituent of the GUT MICROBIOTA in healthy humans. It has anti-inflammatory activity and reduced numbers of this species occur in patients with INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES such as CROHN DISEASE.
Transfer of GASTROINTESTINAL MICROBIOTA from one individual to another by infusion of donor FECES to the upper or lower GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT of the recipient.
Progressive myopathies characterized by the presence of inclusion bodies on muscle biopsy. Sporadic and hereditary forms have been described. The sporadic form is an acquired, adult-onset inflammatory vacuolar myopathy affecting proximal and distal muscles. Familial forms usually begin in childhood and lack inflammatory changes. Both forms feature intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in muscle tissue. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1409-10)
A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.
Transfer from pediatric to adult care.
Tropical Medicine is the study of diseases more commonly found in tropical regions than elsewhere. Examples of these diseases are malaria, yellow fever, Chagas disease, Dengue, Helminths, African trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Leprosy, Lymphatic filaria...
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...