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Understanding the basic properties of how axons respond to injury in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is of fundamental value for developing strategies to promote neural repair. Axons possess complex morphologies with stereotypical branching patterns. However, current knowledge of the axonal response to injury gives little consideration to axonal branches, nor do strategies to promote axon regeneration. This article reviews evidence from in vivo spinal cord imaging that axonal branches markedly impact the degenerative and regenerative responses to injury. At a major bifurcation point, depending on whether one or both axonal branches are injured, neurons may choose either a more self-preservative response or a more dynamic response. The stabilizing effect of the spared branch may underlie a well-known divergence in neuronal responses to injury, and illustrates an example where in vivo spinal cord imaging reveals insights that are difficult to elucidate with conventional histological methods.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Experimental neurology
In vivo imaging of the spinal cord has allowed the observation of single axons over relatively long periods in the living mouse. After spinal cord injury, this methodology has helped to differentiate ...
Axons in the adult mammalian brain and spinal cord fail to regenerate upon lesion. In vivo imaging serves as a tool to investigate the immediate response of axons to injury and how the same injured ax...
Calcium is an important messenger in the neuronal system, but its specific role in axonal regeneration has not been fully investigated. To clarify it, we constructed a noninvasive in vivo calcium-imag...
Following spinal cord trauma, axonal regeneration in the mammalian spinal cord do not occur and functional recovery may be further impeded by retrograde neuronal death. By contrast, lampreys recover a...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces significant cognitive deficits correlated with white matter injury (WMI), involving both axonal and myelin damage. Several models of TBI ex vivo are available to m...
GSK249320 is a monoclonal antibody directed against myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG), a protein that inhibits axonal regeneration. GSK249320 acts as a MAG antagonist, and through this...
The overall study aim is to provide additional magnetic resonance imaging parameters of the cervical spinal cord, brainstem and brain and a better understanding of changes after spinal cor...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when the brain is physically damaged, for example after a car crash. It is common and survivors often have major on-going problems. It is very difficult...
The spinal cord is a common site for the development of several neurodegenerative neurological disorders (spinal muscular atrophy or SMA, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS, X-linked spi...
The SpinalMouse is a computer-assisted medical device that measures and graphically reports on posture and range of motion of the axial spine. The data has shown to be highly valid and rep...
Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; fluorescence imaging; and MICROSCOPY.
Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)
Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.
Spinal Cord Disorders
The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of the back which carry signals back and forth between the body and brain. It is protected by vertebrae, which are the bone disks that make up the spine. An accident that damages the verte...
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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