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There is increasing awareness that in addition to the metabolic crisis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) caused by severe insulin deficiency, the immune inflammatory response is likely an active multicomponent participant in both the acute and chronic insults of this medical crisis, with strong evidence of activation for both the cytokine and complement system. Recent studies report that the matrix metalloproteinase enzymes and their inhibitors are systemically activated in young Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) patients during DKA and speculate on their involvement in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Based on our previous studies, we address the question if matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is expressed in the brain in the fatal brain edema (BE) of DKA. Our data show significant expression of MMP9 on the cells present in brain intravascular areas. The presence of MMP9 in intravascular cells and that of MMP cells seen passing the BBB indicates a possible role in tight junction protein disruption of the BBB, possibly leading to neurological complications including BE. We have also shown that MMP9 is expressed on neurons in the hippocampal areas of both BE/DKA cases investigated, while expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) was reduced in the same areas. We can speculate that intraneuronal MMP9 can be a sign of neurodegeneration. Further studies are necessary to determine the role of MMP9 in the pathogenesis of the neurologic catastrophe of the brain edema of DKA. Inhibition of MMP9 expression might be helpful in preserving neuronal function and BBB integrity during DKA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Experimental and molecular pathology
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A transmembrane domain-containing matrix metalloproteinase. It is synthesized as an inactive zymogen that is activated by the proteolytic action of PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES. Matrix metalloproteinase 16 plays a direct role in the cleavage of proteins in the pericellular environment. In addition it can function indirectly by enzymatically activating the proprotein form of other MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES such as the zymogen of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2.
A transmembrane domain-containing matrix metalloproteinase. It is synthesized as an inactive zymogen that is activated by the action of PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES such as FURIN. Matrix metalloproteinase 14 plays a direct role in the cleavage of proteins in the pericellular environment. In addition it can function indirectly by enzymatically activating the proprotein form of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 15.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is believed to play a role in EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX remodeling and cell fate determination during normal and pathological processes. Matrix metalloproteinase 11 was originally isolated in primary BREAST NEOPLASMS and may be involved in the process of tumorigenesis.
A transmembrane domain-containing matrix metalloproteinase that plays a role in the cleavage of proteins in the pericellular environment. It is synthesized as an inactive zymogen that is activated by the action of ENDOPEPTIDASES such as MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 14.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.
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