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Bacterial pathogens are influenced by signaling molecules including the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline which are host-derived hormones and neurotransmitters. Adrenaline and noradrenaline modulate growth, motility and virulence of bacteria. We show that adrenaline is converted by the pathogen Vibrio cholerae to adrenochrome in the course of respiration, and demonstrate that superoxide produced by the respiratory, Na - translocating
quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) acts as electron acceptor in the oxidative conversion of adrenaline to adrenochrome. Adrenochrome stimulates growth of V. cholerae, and triggers specific responses in V. cholerae and in immune cells. We performed a quantitative proteome analysis of V. cholerae grown in minimal medium with glucose as carbon source without catecholamines, or with adrenaline, noradrenaline or adrenochrome. Significant regulation of proteins participating in iron transport and iron homeostasis, in energy metabolism, and in signaling was observed upon exposure to adrenaline, noradrenaline or adrenochrome. On the host side, adrenochrome inhibited lipopolysaccharide-triggered formation of TNF-α by THP-1 monocytes, though to a lesser extent than adrenaline. It is proposed that adrenochrome produced from adrenaline by respiring V. cholerae functions as effector molecule in pathogen-host interaction.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Bioenergetics
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