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For ages, regeneration has intrigued countless biologists, clinicians, and biomedical engineers. In recent years, significant progress made in identification and characterization of a regeneration tool kit has helped the scientific community to understand the mechanism(s) involved in regeneration across animal kingdom. These mechanistic insights revealed that evolutionarily conserved pathways like Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, BMP, and JAK/STAT are involved in regeneration. Furthermore, advancement in high throughput screening approaches like transcriptomic analysis followed by proteomic validations have discovered many novel genes, and regeneration specific enhancers that are specific to highly regenerative species like Hydra, Planaria, Newts, and Zebrafish. Since genetic machinery is highly conserved across the animal kingdom, it is possible to engineer these genes and regeneration specific enhancers in species with limited regeneration properties like Drosophila, and mammals. Since these models are highly versatile and genetically tractable, cross-species comparative studies can generate mechanistic insights in regeneration for animals with long gestation periods e.g. Newts. In addition, it will allow extrapolation of regenerative capabilities from highly regenerative species to animals with low regeneration potential, e.g. mammals. In future, these studies, along with advancement in tissue engineering applications, can have strong implications in the field of regenerative medicine and stem cell biology.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Developmental biology
Many research methods exist to elucidate the role of BMP-2 during bone regeneration. This chapter briefly reviews important animal models used in these studies and provides details on the rat femur de...
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The liver is the only visceral organ with a tremendous capacity to regenerate. We don't yet understand how normal liver regeneration occurs (on a molecular level) or how to distinguish bet...
We investigated the prevalence of animal allergy and sensitization to animal allergen among participants in international symposium of Korean association for laboratory science (laboratory...
A statistical tool for detecting and modeling gene-gene interactions. It is a non-parametric and model-free approach.
Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).
Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.