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Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are neurotoxic molecules developed as insecticides and chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs). They are covalent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a key enzyme in central and peripheral nervous systems and are responsible for numerous poisonings worldwide. Many animal models have been studied over the years but finding a suitable in vivo model to account for both acute toxicity and long-term exposure remains a topical issue. Recently, an emerging aquatic animal model harboring a mammalian-like cholinergic nervous system, the freshwater planarian from Platyhelminthes, has been used to investigate neurotoxicity and developmental disruption. Given the tremendous toxicity of OPs, various bioremediation strategies have been considered over the years to counter their poisonous effects. Among these, enzymes have been particularly highlighted as they can degrade OPs in a fast, non toxic and environmentally friendly manner. In this article we investigated the biotechnological potential for decontaminating OPs of the previously reported variant SsoPox-αsD6 from the hyperstable enzyme SsoPox, isolated from the archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus. The capacity to hydrolyze 4 new substrates (methyl-pirimiphos, quinalphos, triazophos and dibrom) was demonstrated and the degradation products generated by enzymatic hydrolysis were characterized. We further evaluated the capacity of SsoPox-αsD6 for in vivo protection of freshwater planarians Schmidtea mediterranea (Smed). The use of SsoPox-αsD6 drastically decreased mortality and enhanced mobility of planarians. Then, an enzyme-based filtration device was developed by immobilizing intact Escherichia coli cells expressing SsoPox-αsD6 into alginate beads. The efficacy of the device was demonstrated using planarians as biosensors.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Chemico-biological interactions
Organophosphorus-degrading enzymes show high hydrolysis efficiency and provide an environmentally friendly solution to the pollution of organophosphorus compound. However, poor enzyme stability and te...
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Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A self-evaluation of health status.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
Light weight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester (nylon), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...