Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The inappropriate deposition of extracellular matrix within the heart (termed cardiac fibrosis) is associated with nearly all types of heart disease, including ischemic, hypertensive, diabetic, and valvular. This alteration in the composition of the myocardium can physically limit cardiomyocyte contractility and relaxation, impede electrical conductivity, and hamper regional nutrient diffusion. Fibrosis can be grossly divided into 2 types, namely reparative (where collagen deposition replaces damaged myocardium) and reactive (where typically diffuse collagen deposition occurs without myocardial damage). Despite the widespread association of fibrosis with heart disease and general understanding of its negative impact on heart physiology, it is still not clear when collagen deposition becomes pathologic and translates into disease symptoms. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge of cardiac fibrosis in human patients and experimental animal models, discussing the mechanisms that have been deduced from the latter in relation to the former. Because assessment of the extent of fibrosis is paramount both as a research tool to further understanding and as a clinical tool to assess patients, we have also summarized the current state of noninvasive/minimally invasive detection systems for cardiac fibrosis. Albeit not exhaustive, our aim is to provide an overview of the current understanding of cardiac fibrosis, both clinically and experimentally.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine
Action potential duration (APD) alternans is an established precursor or arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Important differences in fundamental electrophysiological properties relevant to arrhythmi...
Diabetes is associated with increased incidence of myocardial dysfunction, which is partly characterized by interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. Cardiac fibroblasts have been identified as an impor...
Cardiac fibrosis is a common pathophysiological process observed during chronic and stress-induced acceleration of cardiac aging. Fibrosis is a necessary process during wound healing and tissue repair...
In vitro cell-based models that better mimic the human heart tissue are of utmost importance for drug development and cardiotoxicity testing but also as tools to understand mechanisms related with hea...
Human cardiac drug discovery and disease modeling face challenges in recapitulating cellular complexity and animal-to-human translation due to the limitations of conventional 2D cell culture and anima...
Kidney disease patients have a variety of bone disorders that result in bone loss and fractures. The mechanisms of these bone disorders are not clear but may be related to abnormal modific...
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have driven a paradigm shift in the modeling of human disease; the ability to reprogram patient-specific cells holds the promise of an enhance...
Cardiac amyloidosis is a disorder characterized by the deposition of abnormal proteins called amyloid in the heart tissue. This makes it difficult for the heart to function properly. The i...
The molecular mechanisms contributing to the development of aortic aneurysmal disease are poorly characterized making actual therapies not sufficient. Autophagy is an intracellular mechani...
Vascular and cardiac alterations are associated with aldosterone effects are evidenced in experimental models and aldosterone receptor blockade is of clear benefit in cardiac disease (hear...
Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...
Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. The two main types of diabetes are: type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes In the UK, diabetes affects approximately 2.9 million people. There are a...