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Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) allows animal cloning but remains technically challenging. This study investigated limitations to functional oocyte enucleation by actinomycin D (AD) as a means of making SCNT easier to perform. Denuding oocytes or inhibiting transcription before AD treatment revealed that the toxicity of this compound during bovine oocyte maturation is mediated by cumulus cells. Exposure of denuded oocytes to higher concentrations of AD (5-20μgmL-1) and stepwise reductions of the incubation period (from 14.0 to 0.25h) led to complete inhibition of parthenogenetic development. Bovine SCNT using this improved AD enucleation protocol (NT(AD)) restored cleavage rates compared with rates in the parthenogenetic and SCNT controls (P(CTL) and NT(CTL) respectively). However, NT(AD) was associated with increased caspase-3 activity in cleavage stage embryos and did not recover blastocyst rates. The removal of AD-treated oocyte spindle before reconstruction (NT(AD+SR)) improved embryo development and reduced caspase-3 activity to levels similar to those in the P(CTL) and NT(CTL) groups. Furthermore, mid-term pregnancies were achieved using NT(AD+SR) blastocysts. In conclusion, improvements in AD functional enucleation for bovine SCNT circumvents most cellular roadblocks to early embryonic development and future investigations must focus on restoring blastocyst formation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Reproduction, fertility, and development
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Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Minute cells produced during development of an OOCYTE as it undergoes MEIOSIS. A polar body contains one of the nuclei derived from the first or second meiotic CELL DIVISION. Polar bodies have practically no CYTOPLASM. They are eventually discarded by the oocyte. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.
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