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In recent years, immunotherapy for the treatment of solid cancer has emerged as a promising therapeutic alternative. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT), especially T cell-based, have been found to cause tumor regression and even cure in a percentage of treated patients. Checkpoint inhibitors further underscore the potential of the T cell compartment in the treatment of cancer. Not all patients respond to these treatments, however, and many challenges remain. Areas covered: This review covers the challenges and progress in tumor antigen target identification and selection, and cell product manufacturing for T cell ACT. Tumor immune escape mechanisms and strategies to overcome those in the context of T cell ACT are also discussed. Expert opinion: The immunotherapy toolbox is rapidly expanding and improving, and the future promises further breakthroughs in the T cell ACT field. The heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment and the multiplicity of tumor immune escape mechanisms pose formidable challenges to successful T cell immunotherapy in solid tumors, however. Individualized approaches and strategies combining treatments targeting different immunotherapeutic aspects will be needed in order expand the applicability and improve the response rates in future.
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Name: Expert opinion on biological therapy
In a span of a few years, the surprising early successes of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors across a vast range of tumor types have transformed our understanding of cancer immunogenicity and...
Adoptive T-cell therapy has shown remarkable clinical efficacy in treating refractory hematological cancers. However, challenges presented by solid tumors impede the applicability of adoptive T-cell t...
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Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
A method of providing future reproductive opportunities before a medical treatment with known risk of loss of fertility. Typically reproductive organs or tissues (e.g., sperm, egg, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissues) are cryopreserved for future use before the medical treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) begins.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...