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Conventional methods for detecting aflatoxigenic fungus and aflatoxin contamination are generally time-consuming, sample-destructive and require skilled personnel to perform, making them impossible for large-scale non-destructive screening detection, real-time and on-site analysis. Therefore, the potential of visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy over the 400-2500 nm spectral range was examined for determination of aflatoxigenic fungus infection and the corresponding aflatoxin contamination on corn kernels, in a rapid and non-destructive manner. The two A. flavus strains, AF13 and AF38 were used to represent the aflatoxigenic fungus and non-aflatoxigenic fungus, respectively, for artificial inoculation on corn kernels. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models based on different combinations of spectral range (
1120-2470 nm), corn side (endosperm or germ side), spectral variable number (full spectra or selected variables), modeling approach (two-step or one-step) and classification threshold (20 or 100 ppb) were developed and their performance was compared. The first study focusing on detection of aflatoxigenic fungus-infected corn kernels showed that, in classifying the "control+AF38-inoculated" and AF13-inoculated corn kernels, the full spectral PLS-DA models using the preprocessed spectra over range II and one-step approach yielded more accurate prediction results than using the spectra over range I and the two-step approach. The advantage of the full spectral PLS-DA models established using one corn side than the other side was not consistent in the explored combination cases. The best full spectral PLS-DA model obtained was obtained using the germ-side spectra over range II with the one-step approach, which achieved an overall accuracy of 91.11%. The established CARS-PLSDA models performed better than the corresponding full-spectral PLS-DA models, with the better model achieved an overall accuracy of 97.78% in separating the AF13-inoculated corn kernels and the uninfected control and AF38-inoculated corn kernels. The second study focusing on the detection of aflatoxin-contaminated corn kernels showed that, based on the aflatoxin threshold of 20 ppb and 100 ppb, the best overall accuracy in classifying the aflatoxin-contaminated and healthy corn kernels attained 86.67% and 84.44%, respectively, using the CARS-PLSDA models. The quantitative modeling results using partial least squares regression (PLSR) obtained the correlation coefficient of prediction set (R) of 0.91, indicating the possibility of using Vis-NIR spectroscopy to quantify aflatoxin concentration in aflatoxigenic fungus-infected corn kernels.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
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Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).
A genus of destructive parasitic algae in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.
The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.
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