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Malaria remains a worldwide concern in terms of morbidity and mortality. Limited understanding of Plasmodium proteome makes it challenging to control malaria. Understanding of the expression and functions of different Plasmodium proteins will help in knowing this organism's virulence properties, other than facilitating the drug development process. In this study, we characterize the lipid binding and biophysical properties of the putative Plasmodium falciparum acyl-CoA binding proteins (PfACBPs), which may have intriguing functions in different stages of Plasmodium falciparum life-cycle. While the PfACBPs can bind to long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs with high affinity, their affinity for short-chain fatty acyl-CoAs is weak. Base-stacking, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between the aromatic rings, charged groups/residues and hydrophobic chain/residues are responsible for acyl-CoA binding to PfACBPs. PfACBPs can also bind to phospholipids. PfACBPs cannot bind to the fatty acids and unphosphorylated fatty acid esters. PfACBPs are globular/helical proteins that contain a conserved acyl-CoA binding region. They exist in folded or unfolded conformations without attaining any intermediate state. In a systematic high-throughput in silico screening, mefloquine is identified as a potential ligand of PfACBPs. Binding affinities of mefloquine are much higher than that of fatty acyl-CoAs for all PfACBPs. Mefloquine binds to the acyl-CoA binding pocket of PfACBPs, thereby engaging many of the critical residues. Thus, mefloquine acts as a competitive inhibitor against fatty acyl-CoA binding to PfACBPs, leading to prevention of Plasmodium falciparum growth and proliferation. Taken together, our study characterizes the functions of annotated PfACBPs and highlights the mechanistic details of their inactivation by mefloquine.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ACS chemical biology
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A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
An 86-amino acid polypeptide, found in central and peripheral tissues, that displaces diazepam from the benzodiazepine recognition site on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (RECEPTORS, GABA). It also binds medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters and serves as an acyl-CoA transporter. This peptide regulates lipid metabolism.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Malaria is a serious tropical disease spread by mosquitoes. If malaria is not diagnosed and treated promptly, it can be fatal. What causes malaria? Malaria is caused by a type of parasite known as Plasmodium. There are many different types of Plasmod...
Tropical Medicine is the study of diseases more commonly found in tropical regions than elsewhere. Examples of these diseases are malaria, yellow fever, Chagas disease, Dengue, Helminths, African trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Leprosy, Lymphatic filaria...