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This study aimed to show evidence of MR cross-relaxation effects in cortical bone and to compare different MR sequences for the quantification of cross-relaxation parameters. Measurements were performed on bovine diaphysis samples with spectroscopic methods (inversion-recovery, off-resonance saturation) and with a variable flip angle (VFA) UTE imaging method on a 4.7 T laboratory-assembled scanner. Cross-relaxation parameter assessment was carried out via a two-pool model simulation with a matrix algebra approach. A proton signal amplitude of 28 Mol/L was observed (equivalent water fraction of 25%). It was attributed to collagen-bound water, with values of ~ 0.3 ms, a "long-T " proton pool, in exchange with protons from the collagen macromolecules ( of 10-20 μs). Magnetization transfer (MT) effects were detected with all sequences. The best precision of model parameters was obtained with off-resonance saturation; the fraction of collagen methylene protons was found in the range of 22-28% and the transverse relaxation time for collagen methylene protons was 11 μs (1% precision). The model parameters obtained were compatible with VFA-UTE results but could not be assessed with acceptable accuracy and precision using this method. In vivo MT quantification using off-resonance saturation with a single B amplitude and offset frequency may provide information about the relative amount of collagen per unit volume in cortical bone.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: NMR in biomedicine
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A type of osseous tissue which makes up the inner part of bone. It has a spongy, honeycomb-like structure with struts or trabecula and contains the BONE MARROW. It has higher rate of BONE REMODELING turnover than CORTICAL BONE.
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Multiple Sclerosis MS
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