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Geographic variation in body size has fascinated biologists since the 19th century as it can provide insight into the evolution of the body size of various organisms. In this study, we investigated body size variation in eight carabid species/subspecies (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along elevational gradients in six Central European mountain ranges. First, we examined elevational variation in body size and whether female and male body sizes differed in their responses to elevation. Second, we examined intrapopulation variation in body size along an elevational gradient, and we compared the degrees of intrapopulation variation between males and females. The investigated species either followed a converse Bergmann's cline (Carabus auronitens auronitens Fabricius 1792; Carabus linnei Panzer 1810; Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798); Pterostichus pilosus (Host, 1789)) or their size was unaffected by elevation (Carabus auronitens escheri Palliardi, 1825; Carabus sylvestris sylvestris Panzer, 1796; Carabus sylvestris transsylvanicus Dejean, 1826; Pterostichus burmeisteri Heer, 1838). Females were the larger sex in all the investigated species, but the degree of sexual size dimorphism differed between species. In general, the degree of sexual size dimorphism showed no change with elevation. The degree of intrapopulation variation in body size slightly increased with elevation in C. sylvestris sylvestris and P. pilosus. Overall, the intrapopulation variation in body size significantly differed among the investigated carabid species. The existing literature on intrapopulation variation in the body size of insects is limited, but further investigation of this issue could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms that generate geographical clines.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental entomology
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The physical measurements of a body.
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
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