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In skeletal muscle, the major isoform of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) is β2-AR and the minor isoform is β1-AR, which is opposite to the situation in cardiac muscle. Despite extensive studies in cardiac muscle, the physiological roles of the β-AR subtypes in skeletal muscle are not fully understood. Therefore, in this work, we compared the effects of chronic β1- or β2-AR activation with a specific β1-AR agonist, dobutamine (DOB), or a specific β2-AR agonist, clenbuterol (CB), on masseter and cardiac muscles in mice. In cardiac muscle, chronic β1-AR stimulation induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and myocyte apoptosis, whereas chronic β2-AR stimulation induced cardiac hypertrophy without histological abnormalities. In masseter muscle, however, chronic β1-AR stimulation did not induce muscle hypertrophy, but did induce fibrosis and apoptosis concomitantly with increased levels of p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2) (Thr-202/Tyr-204), calmodulin kinase II (Thr-286) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (Ser-2481) phosphorylation. On the other hand, chronic β2-AR stimulation in masseter muscle induced muscle hypertrophy without histological abnormalities, as in the case of cardiac muscle, concomitantly with phosphorylation of Akt (Ser-473) and mTOR (Ser-2448) and increased expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II, an autophagosome marker. These results suggest that the β1-AR pathway is deleterious and the β2-AR is protective in masseter muscle. These data should be helpful in developing pharmacological approaches for the treatment of skeletal muscle wasting and weakness.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). beta-2 Adrenergic receptors are more sensitive to epinephrine than to norepinephrine and have a high affinity for the agonist terbutaline. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in skeletal muscle, liver, and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary smooth muscle.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, ALPHA). alpha-2 Adrenergic receptors can be pharmacologically discriminated, e.g., by their high affinity for the agonist clonidine and the antagonist yohimbine. They are found on pancreatic beta cells, platelets, and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, as well as both pre- and postsynaptically in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, ALPHA). alpha-1 Adrenergic receptors can be pharmacologically discriminated, e.g., by their high affinity for the agonist phenylephrine and the antagonist prazosin. They are widespread, with clinically important concentrations in the liver, the heart, vascular, intestinal, and genitourinary smooth muscle, and the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including TETANUS, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions.
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