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Major depression is a stress-linked disease with significant morbidity and the anesthetic drug ketamine is of growing interest in the treatment of depression, since in responsive individuals a single dose has rapid (within hours) antidepressant effects that can be sustained for over a week in some instances. This combination of fast action and a therapeutic effect that lasts far beyond the drug's half-life points to a unique mechanism of action. In this reverse translational study, we investigate the degree to which ketamine counteracts stress-related depression-like behavioral responses by determining whether it affects unstressed animals similarly to stressed mice. To test this, male C57BL/6J mice were given a single injection of vehicle (0.9% saline; i.p.), 10 mg/kg ketamine, or 30 mg/kg ketamine, and were tested in the forced swim test (FST) 24 hours and 7 days later, as well as in the open field test on the eighth day. Unstressed mice had normal group housing, environmental enrichment, and experimenter pre-handling (5 days), whereas stressed animals were subjected to chronic mild stress (single housing, reduced enrichment and minimal handling), where some mice also had daily two-week unpredictable chronic stress (UCS). We find that ketamine (24 hours post-injection) decreases immobility and increases mobile (swimming) behavior (antidepressant-like effects) in UCS animals but does the opposite in unstressed mice, similar to recent human findings. In summary, these data suggest that chronic psychological stress interacts with ketamine treatment to modulate its effects in the C57BL/6J mouse FST, which reinforces the relevance of this test, and this strain of mice, to human, stress-induced depression.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
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