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Functional studies suggest that promoter polymorphisms of the Prostaglandin D Receptor (PTGDR) gene can be involved in asthma. All-trans Retinoic acid (ATRA) has also been linked to allergic diseases. We have previously described the PTGDR promoter activation mediated by ATRA through response elements (RARE) at position -549T> C. In this study we aimed to analyze the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on the expression of PTGDR, the production of cytokines as well as to evaluate the binding of RA receptors to RA-Response Elements (RARE) sequences. A549 cells were transfected with vectors carrying different PTGDR haplotypes and treated with all-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA). PTGDR expression was measured by qPCR. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) were performed in ATRA stimulated KU812 cells and in PBMCs of patients carrying CTCT, CCCC or CCCT haplotypes. In addition, a broad panel of cytokines was analyzed by cytometric bead assay in A549 cells. The expression of PTGDR increased in A549 cells transfected with PTGDR-variants. The CCCC haplotype showed a significantly higher expression compared with CTCT. However, we found that RA up-regulated PTGDR expression through RARα mainly in the CTCT variant. Experiments on PBMCs from allergic patients carrying the -549T and -549C variant of the PTGDR promoter after ATRA and RAR antagonist administration confirmed the modulation of PTGDR by ATRA. The cytokine analysis showed that IL4 and IL6 levels were significantly increased in A549 cells transfected with PTGDR. In addition, ATRA treatment decreased the levels of IL4, IL6 and TNFα in A549 cells, whereas it increased IL4 and TNFα levels in PTGDR-transfected cells. We observed genetic differences in the regulation of PTGDR by ATRA that could contribute to the phenotypic differences observed in allergic patients. Our findings showed that RAR modulation by PTGDR might have an impact on Th2 responses, suggesting that RAR could be a potential therapeutic target in allergic inflammation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signalling pathways.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme that resides in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It catalyzes the conversion of trans-RETINOIC ACID to 4-hydroxyretinoic acid.
A mediator complex subunit that is believed to play a key role in the coactivation of nuclear receptor-activated transcription by the mediator complex. It interacts with a variety of nuclear receptors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; VITAMIN D RECEPTORS; PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; and GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme family whose members function in the metabolism of RETINOIC ACID. It includes RETINOIC ACID 4-HYDROXYLASE.
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