Faecal volatile biomarkers of Clostridium difficile infection.

08:00 EDT 15th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Faecal volatile biomarkers of Clostridium difficile infection."

Care of patients with potential CDI can involve isolation and use of antibiotics, often before a definitive diagnosis is available, impacting healthcare resource and contributing to antibiotic resistance. There is anecdotal evidence that the faeces of CDI patients have a distinctive odour, while it is well-established that changes in the gut microbiota are associated with changes in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced. A total of twenty-four candidate volatile biomarkers were identified from a review of the literature including in vitro, animal and human studies. Using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-time-of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC-ToFMS), VOC emission rates were determined on stored frozen stool samples from 53 CDI-positive and 53 CDI-negative patients with unexplained diarrhoea which had previously been diagnosed using enzymatic and nucleic acid amplification tests. Sample preparation was limited to placement of a subsample in an appropriate container. Compounds exhibiting a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in emission rate between the CDI-positive and-negative groups and a corresponding area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (ROC) >0.7 were considered potentially indicative of CDI. Seven compounds were so identified: propan-1-ol (ROC 0.75), 3-methylbutanal (ROC 0.84), ethyl propionate (ROC 0.81), hexanoic acid (ROC 0.73), 4-methylphenol (ROC 0.81), dodecane (ROC 0.80) and indole (ROC 0.85). A number of potential volatile biomarkers of CDI can be sampled rapidly and with little prior preparation from faecal samples of patients with diarrhoea. Of these 4-methylphenol (p-cresol) is of particular interest as it has been anecdotally linked to CDI and is closely related to the biology and virulence of Clostridium difficile. This approach shows promise for the rapid, point-of-care diagnosis of CDI with good sensitivity and specificity.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: PloS one
ISSN: 1932-6203
Pages: e0215256


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.

An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.

Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.

A factor associated with the well-being of living organisms that is used as a measure of environmental change and or influence. For example, aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in earthworm tissue is used as an indication of heavy metal pollution in soils. Distinguish from BIOMARKERS.

Deciduous plant rich in volatile oil (OILS, VOLATILE). It is used as a flavoring agent and has many other uses both internally and topically.

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