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Mosquitoes act as vectors of numerous pathogens that cause human diseases. Dengue virus (DENV) transmitted by mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is responsible for dengue fever epidemics worldwide with a serious impact on human health. Currently, disease control mainly relies on vector targeted intervention strategies. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the innate immune response of mosquitoes against pathogens. In the present study, the expression profiles of immunity-related genes in the midgut responding to DENV infection by feeding were analyzed by transcriptome and quantitative real-time PCR. The level of Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) increased seven days post-infection (d.p.i.), which could be induced by the Toll immune pathway. The expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) genes, including antioxidant genes, such as HPX7, HPX8A, HPX8B, HPX8C were induced at one d.p.i. and peaked again at ten d.p.i. in the midgut. Interestingly, down-regulation of the antioxidant gene HPX8C by RNA interference led to reduction in the virus titer in the mosquito, probably due to the elevated levels of ROS. Application of a ROS inhibitor and scavenger molecules further established the role of oxygen free radicals in the modulation of the immune response to DENV infection. Overall, our comparative transcriptome analyses provide valuable information about the regulation of immunity related genes in the transmission vector in response to DENV infection. It further allows us to identify novel molecular mechanisms underlying the host-virus interaction, which might aid in the development of novel strategies to control mosquito-borne diseases.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS neglected tropical diseases
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An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
An acute infectious, eruptive, febrile disease caused by four antigenically related but distinct serotypes of the DENGUE VIRUS. It is transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, especially A. aegypti. Classical dengue (dengue fever) is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER is a more virulent form of dengue virus infection and a separate clinical entity. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A viral disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with ZIKA VIRUS. Its mild DENGUE-like symptoms include fever, rash, headaches and ARTHRALGIA. The viral infection during pregnancy, however, may be associated with other neurological and autoimmune complications (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME; and MICROCEPHALY).
The field concerned with the interrelationship between the brain, behavior and the immune system. Neuropsychologic, neuroanatomic and psychosocial studies have demonstrated their role in accentuating or diminishing immune/allergic responses.
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
Tropical Medicine is the study of diseases more commonly found in tropical regions than elsewhere. Examples of these diseases are malaria, yellow fever, Chagas disease, Dengue, Helminths, African trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Leprosy, Lymphatic filaria...
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...