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Fullerene derivative, such as [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), is widely used as the electron-transport layer (ETL) in inverted perovskite solar cell (PSCs). However its low electron mobility, complexity in achieving quality film formation, and severe non-radiative recombination at perovskite/PCBM interface due to the large electron capture region, results in lower efficiency for inverted PSCs compared to the normal structures. Herein, we demonstrate an effective and practical strategy to overcome these challenges. Conjugated n-type polymeric materials were mixed together with PCBM to form a homogeneous bulk-mixed (HBM) continuous film with high electron mobility and suitable energy level. HBM film is found to completely cap the perovskite surface to enhance the electron extraction. The critical electron capture radius of the HBM decreases to 12.52 nm from 14.89 nm of PCBM due to the large relative permittivity, resulting in reduced non-radiative recombination at perovskite/HBM interface. The efficiency of inverted PSCs with HBM ETL exceeds 20.6% with a high fill factor of 0.82. Further, the stability of devices is improved owing to the high hydrophobicity of the HBM ETLs. Under ambient air condition after 45 days, the efficiency of inverted PSCs based on HBM display remains 80% of the initial value. This is significantly higher than the control devices which retain only 48% of the initial value under similar aging conditions. We believe these breakthroughs in improving efficiency and stability of inverted PSCs will expedite their transition.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nano letters
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Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
Ozone in the Earth's stratosphere. It is produced continuously by the action of solar ULTRAVIOLET RAYS on oxygen in the stratosphere. The stratospheric ozone (especially at the ozone layer) blocks much of the solar UV radiation of wavelengths of 320 nanometers or less from being transmitted to lower ATMOSPHERE of the Earth.
A neoplasm of prolymphocytes affecting the blood, bone marrow, and spleen. It is characterized by prolymphocytes exceeding 55% of the lymphoid cells in the blood and profound splenomegaly.