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Contrary to everyday experience, where all liquid droplets assume rounded, near-spherical shapes, the temperature-tuning of liquid droplets to faceted polyhedral shapes, and to spontaneous splitting, has been recently demonstrated in oil-in-water emulsions. However, the elucidation of the mechanism driving these surprising effects, as well as their many potential applications, ranging from faceted nanoparticle synthesis, through new industrial emulsification routes, to controlled-release drug delivery within the human body, have been severely hampered by the micron-scale resolution of the light microscopy employed to date in all in situ studies. Thus, the thickness of the interfacially-frozen crystalline monolayer, suggested to drive these effects, could not be directly measured, and the low limit on the droplet size still showing these effects remained unknown. In this study, we employ a combination of super-resolution STED (stimulated emission depletion) microscopy, CryoTEM (transmission electron microscopy), and FF (freeze-fracture) methods, to study these effects well into the nanometer length scale. We demonstrate the occurrence of the faceting transition in droplets spanning an incredible 12 decades in volume, from nano- to yoctoliters, and directly visualize the interfacially-frozen, few-nanometer-thick, crystalline monolayer suggested to drive these effects. Furthermore, our measurements allow placing an upper-limit estimate on the two-dimensional Young modulus of the interfacial nanometer-thick surface crystal in the smallest droplets, providing an insight into the virtually-unexplored domain of nanoelasticity.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nano letters
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The removal of a soluble component from a liquid mixture by contact with a second liquid, immiscible with the carrier liquid, in which the component is preferentially soluble. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Excessive URIC ACID or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME). It is associated with HYPERTENSION and GOUT.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Miniaturized methods of liquid-liquid extraction.
A perilipin that localizes to LIPID DROPLETS; CYTOPLASM; ENDOSOMES; and PLASMA MEMBRANE, especially in MACROPHAGES. It functions as a transporter of free fatty acids to lipid droplets to promote their biogenesis and growth. It is also required for the transport of the MANNOSE-6-PHOSPHATE RECEPTOR from endosomes to the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK. Its structure consists of four helix bundles that interact with the hydrophobic lipid droplet surface.
<!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery technologies are <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->patent pr...
Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones become extremely porous, are subject to fracture, and heal slowly, occurring especially in women following menopause and often leading to curvature of the spine from vertebral collapse. Follow and track&n...