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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) not only are by-products of aerobic respiration, but also play vital roles in metabolism regulation and signal transductions. It is important to understand the functions of ROS in biological systems. In addition, scientists have made use of ROS to kill bacteria and tumors through a process known as photodynamic therapy (PDT). This paper provides a concise review of current molecular tools that can generate ROS in biological systems via either non-genetic or genetically-encoded way. Challenges and perspectives are further discussed with the hope of broadening the applications of ROS generators in research and clinical settings.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Bioconjugate chemistry
Reactive sulfur species (RSS) play regulatory roles in biological systems. Many RSS are highly reactive and transient molecules, making their studies difficult. RSS donors or precursors, which are use...
What is the topic of this review? Within this review, the role of reactive oxygen species in cellular homeostasis, physiology and pathophysiology is discussed. What advances does it highlight? The rev...
Although elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been observed in cancer cells and cancer cells aberrantly proliferate, it is not known whether the level of reactive oxygen species and t...
Microbial anaerobes are exposed in the natural environment and in their hosts, even if transiently, to fluctuating concentrations of oxygen and its derived reactive species, which pose a considerable ...
Salmonella enterica represents an enterobacterial species including numerous serovars that cause infections at, or initiated at, the intestinal epithelium. Many serovars also act as facultative intrac...
The overall objective of this clinical study is to determine if smokers who switch from their usual high reactive oxygen and nitrous oxide species (ROS/NOS) products to a low ROS/NOS produ...
The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of inhaled apocynin on ROS (reactive oxygen species) and NOS (reactive nitrogen species) synthesis in 10 nonsmoking mild asthmatics. Effec...
Diabetic nephropathy has become the single most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. On a molecular level, at least five major pathways have been implicated in glucose-mediated vasc...
Melatonin is a hormone that regulates the circadian cycle in addition to having an antioxidant effect. Patients with prediabetes state, has a deregulation of glucose metabolism and an over...
Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Early during sepsis course, immature neutrophils could be found in the bloodstream and may...
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A technique for causing a targeted loss of molecular function from REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES that are formed by the illumination of dyes placed in the immediate vicinity of the target molecule.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...