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Layer-by-layer (LbL) nanoparticles offer great potential to the field of drug delivery, where these nanocomposites have been studied for their ability to deliver chemotherapeutic agents, small molecule inhibitors, and nucleic acids. Most exciting is their ability to encapsulate multiple functional elements, which allow nanocarriers to deliver complex combination therapies with staged release. However, relative to planar LbL constructs, colloidal LbL systems have not undergone extensive systematic studies that outline critical synthetic solution conditions needed for robust and efficient assembly. The multi-staged process of adsorbing a series of materials onto a nanoscopic template is inherently complex, and facilitating the self-assembly of these materials depends on identifying proper solution conditions for each synthetic step and adsorbed material. Here, we focus on addressing some of the fundamental questions that must be answered in order to obtain a reliable and robust synthesis of nucleic acid-containing LbL liposomes. This includes a study of solution conditions such as pH, ionic strength, salt composition and valency, and their impact on the preparation of LbL nanoparticles. Our results provide insight into the selection of solution conditions to control degree of ionization and electrostatic screening length to suit the adsorption of nucleic acids and synthetic polypeptides. The optimization of these parameters led to a roughly 8-fold improvement in nucleic acid loading in LbL liposomes, indicating the importance of optimizing solution conditions in the preparation of therapeutic LbL nanoparticles. These results highlight the benefits of defining principles for constructing highly effective nanoparticle systems.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ACS nano
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Naturally-occurring or artificially made water-soluble POLYMERS whose repeating units are ionizable. Polyelectrolytes demonstrate attributes that are typical of salts, such as electrical conductivity, and typical of polymers, such as viscosity.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
Methods used to measure the relative activity of a specific enzyme or its concentration in solution. Typically an enzyme substrate is added to a buffer solution containing enzyme and the rate of conversion of substrate to product is measured under controlled conditions. Many classical enzymatic assay methods involve the use of synthetic colorimetric substrates and measuring the reaction rates using a spectrophotometer.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
<!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery technologies are <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->patent pr...