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Many vertebrates form monogamous pairs to mate and care for their offspring. However, genetic tools have increasingly shown that many offspring arise from matings outside of the monogamous pair bond. Social monogamy is relatively common in coral reef fishes, but there have been relatively few studies that have confirmed monogamy or extra-pair reproduction, either for males or females. Here long-term observations and genetic tools were applied to examine the parentage of embryos in a paternally mouthbrooding cardinalfish, Sphaeramia nematoptera. Paternal care in fishes, such as mouth brooding, is thought to be associated with a high degree of confidence in paternity. Two-years of observations confirmed that S. nematoptera form long-term pair bonds within larger groups. However, genetic parentage revealed extra-pair mating by both sexes. Of 105 broods analysed from 64 males, 30.1% were mothered by a female that was not the partner and 11.5% of broods included eggs from two females. Despite the high paternal investment associated with mouthbrooding, 7.6% of broods were fertilised by two males. Extra-pair matings appeared to be opportunistic encounters with individuals from outside the immediate group. We argue that while pair formation contributes to group cohesion, both males and females can maximise lifetime reproductive success by taking advantage of extra-pair mating opportunities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular ecology
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A form of inheritance where the traits of the offspring are paternal in origin due to the expression of extra-nuclear genetic material such as MITOCHONDRIAL DNA or Y chromosome genes. CENTRIOLES are also paternally inherited.
Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.
A family of pheromone receptors that were initially discovered in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE as proteins necessary for fungal conjugation. Each mating factor receptor is expressed in HAPLOID CELLS of a single mating type.
A protein also known as pheromone mating factor that occurs on the surfaces of organisms such as yeast and fungi.
An autosomal dominant disorder caused by deletion of the proximal long arm of the paternal chromosome 15 (15q11-q13) or by inheritance of both of the pair of chromosomes 15 from the mother (UNIPARENTAL DISOMY) which are imprinted (GENETIC IMPRINTING) and hence silenced. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; MUSCULAR HYPOTONIA; HYPERPHAGIA; OBESITY; short stature; HYPOGONADISM; STRABISMUS; and HYPERSOMNOLENCE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p229)
Collaborations in biotechnology
Commercial and academic collaborations are used throughout the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector to enhance research and product development. Collaborations can take the form of research and evaluation agreements, licensing, partnerships etc. ...