Pathfinders in oncology from the end of the 19th century to the first description of Ewing sarcoma.

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Summary of "Pathfinders in oncology from the end of the 19th century to the first description of Ewing sarcoma."

During the period 1884 to 1922, the only option in cases of operable cancers was radical surgery, and only a minority of patients were cured. Sporadic attempts were made to treat inoperable cancer patients with bacterial toxins; however, with the discovery of x-ray and radium, the era of radiation treatment as an alternative to surgery began. The discovery of transmissible cancers and experimental growth of cancer cells offered new information and not only led to a better understanding of the cellular composition of cancers but also yielded important information that ultimately paved the way to chemotherapy. These efforts also advanced the understanding of the pathogenesis of tumors and induced new clinical and pathologic classifications and subspecializations. It is important to emphasize that many of the initiatives and discoveries made in Europe in the second half of the 19th century were first put into clinical practice in the United States during the first 2 decades of the 20th century, including the use of x-ray and radium for irradiation and as diagnostic tools. All things considered, the progress made between 1884 and 1922 came about through the hard work of many eminent individuals; however, there were 7 foresighted pathfinders (3 surgeons, 2 pathologists, 1 internist, and 1 physicist) who-despite their widely diverse backgrounds, personalities, and expertise-made remarkable contributions to oncology to an extent that is still felt today.


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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Cancer
ISSN: 1097-0142


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)

Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.

A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)

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