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Character displacement may facilitate species coexistence through niche partitioning. However, the degree to which character displacement influences broader patterns of community assembly is unclear. Here, we capitalize on a natural experiment of community assembly on the oceanic island of Bermuda. Over the past century, three species of ecologically similar but distantly related Anolis lizards have been introduced to Bermuda where no Anolis has ever naturally existed. The Jamaican anole (A. grahami) arrived first in 1905 and dispersed rapidly across the island. Five decades later, the Antiguan anole (A. leachii) and the Barbadian anole (A. extremus) were introduced to independent locations. In 1991, A. leachii and A. extremus were observed to nearly meet at a contact zone but to not yet coexist. We record that subsequent range expansion at this contact zone has been asymmetrical; A. leachii invaded the range of A. extremus, but reciprocal invasion by A. extremus has not occurred. When in allopatry in Bermuda, both species occupy identical ecological space. However, A. leachii underwent rapid ecological character displacement to use arboreal habitat when invading the range of A. extremus. These findings highlight how character displacement may influence the process of dispersal and drive patterns of coexistence and community assembly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.
Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.
Treatment using irradiation with LASER light of low power intensity so that the effects are not due to heat, as in LASER THERAPY. These non-thermal effects are thought to be mediated by a photochemical reaction that alters CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, leading to increased mRNA synthesis and CELL PROLIFERATION. Low-level laser therapy has been used for a wide variety of conditions, but most frequently for wound healing and pain control.
The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.
Protrusion of the rectal mucous membrane through the anus. There are various degrees: incomplete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle but with herniation of the bowel; and internal complete with rectosigmoid or upper rectum intussusception into the lower rectum.