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Electrophiles can undergo covalent modification of cellular proteins associated with its dysfunction, thereby exerting toxicity. Small nucleophilic molecules such as glutathione protect cells from electrophilic insult by binding covalently to electrophiles to form adducts that are excreted into the extracellular space. Recent studies indicate that sulfane sulfur, which is defined as a sulfur atom with six valence electron and no charge, plays an essential role in protection against electrophile toxicity because sulfane sulfur can be highly nucleophilic compared to the corresponding thiol group. Advances in the development of assays to detect sulfane sulfur have revealed that sulfane sulfur-containing molecules such as persulfide/polysulfide species are ubiquitous in cells and tissues. Also, there is growing evidence that the binding of sulfane sulfur to electrophiles forms sulfur adducts as detoxified metabolites. Although the biosynthesis pathways of sulfane sulfur are known, its regulatory function in toxicology is still unclear. This review outlines the current knowledge of the synthesis, chemical properties, detection methods, interactions with electrophiles, and toxicological significance of sulfane sulfur, as well as suggesting directions for future research.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
Sulfane sulfur is common inside cells, playing both regulatory and antioxidant roles. However, there are unresolved issues about its chemistry and biochemistry. We report the discovery that reactive s...
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Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of a sulfur-sulfur bond. EC 5.3.4.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sulfur atoms (2.8.1), sulfur groups (2.8.2) or coenzyme A (2.8.3). EC 2.8.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and drug ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and TOXICOLOGY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. It includes toxicokinetics, the pharmacokinetic mechanism of the toxic effects of a substance. ADME and ADMET are short-hand abbreviations for absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicology.
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