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Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are new-generation photoluminescent nanomaterials gaining considerable recognition in the life sciences due to their unique optical properties that allow high-contrast imaging in cells and tissues. UCNP applications in optical diagnosis, bioassays, therapeutics, photodynamic therapy, drug delivery, and light-controlled release of drugs are promising, demanding a comprehensive systematic study of their pharmacological properties. We report on production of biofunctional UCNP-based nanocomplexes suitable for optical microscopy and imaging of HER2-positive cells and tumors, as well as on the comprehensive evaluation of their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicological properties using cells and laboratory animals. The nanocomplexes represent a UCNP core/shell structure of the NaYF4:Yb,Er,Tm/NaYF4 composition coated with an amphiphilic alternating copolymer of maleic anhydride with 1-octadecene (PMAO) and conjugated to the Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin9-29) with high affinity to the HER2 receptor. We demonstrated the specific binding of UCNP-PMAO-DARPin to HER2-positive cancer cells in cultures and xenograft animal models allowing the tumor visualization for at least 24 h. An exhaustive study of the general and specific toxicity of UCNP-PMAO-DARPin including the evaluation of their allergenic, immunotoxic, and reprotoxic properties was carried out. The obtained experimental body of evidence leads to a conclusion that UCNP-PMAO and UCNP-PMAO-DARPin are functional, non-cytotoxic, biocompatible, and safe for imaging applications in cells, small animals, and prospective clinical applications of image-guided surgery.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
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Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
<!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery technologies are <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->patent pr...