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Nipah virus and Hendra virus are highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae. These viruses were first identified as the causative agents of severe respiratory and encephalitic disease in the 1990s across Australia and Southern Asia with mortality rates reaching up to 75%. While outbreaks of Nipah and Hendra virus infections remain rare and sporadic, there is concern that Nipah virus has pandemic potential. Despite increased attention, little is understood about the neuropathogenesis of henipavirus infection. Neuropathogenesis appears to arise from dual mechanisms of vascular disease and direct parenchymal brain infection, but the relative contributions remain unknown while respiratory disease arises from vasculitis and respiratory epithelial cell infection. This review will address Nipah virus basic clinical disease, pathology, and pathogenesis with a particular focus on CNS infection and address the necessity of a model of relapsed CNS infection. Additionally, the innate immune responses to Nipah virus infection in vitro and in the CNS are reviewed as it is likely linked to any persistent CNS infection.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pathogens and disease
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The enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nervous systems taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the central nervous system, especially the hypothalamus and the solitary nucleus, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS; these and related central and sensory structures are sometimes (but not here) considered to be part of the autonomic nervous system itself.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Inherited conditions characterized by a loss of myelin in the central nervous system.
An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).
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